By Mizuho Yabushita
The subject of this thesis is catalytic conversion of non-food, ample, and renewable biomass reminiscent of cellulose and chitin to chemical substances. In biorefinery, chemical transformation of polymers to precious compounds has attracted all over the world curiosity for development sustainable societies. First, the present scenario of this scorching learn quarter has been summarized good within the common advent of the thesis, which is helping readers to familiarize yourself with this subject. subsequent, the writer explains high-yielding construction of glucose from cellulose through the use of an alkali-activated carbon as a catalyst, leading to a yield of glucose as excessive as 88%, that is one of many maximum yields ever said. The characterization of carbon fabrics has indicated that vulnerable acid websites at the catalyst advertise the response, that is markedly various from pronounced catalytic structures that require powerful acids. moreover, the 1st catalytic transformation of chitin with retention of N-acetyl teams has been built. the combo of mechanocatalytic hydrolysis and thermal solvolysis allows the construction of N-acetylated monomers in strong yields of as much as 70%. The catalytic structures validated during this thesis are specified within the fields of either chemistry and chemical engineering, and their excessive efficiencies can give a contribution to eco-friendly and sustainable chemistry sooner or later. in the meantime, mechanistic reviews according to characterization, thermodynamics, kinetics, and version reactions have additionally been played to bare the jobs of catalysts throughout the reactions. the consequences might be worthy for readers to layout and boost new catalysts and response systems.
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Additional info for A Study on Catalytic Conversion of Non-Food Biomass into Chemicals: Fusion of Chemical Sciences and Engineering
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The replaced [BMIM]+ species remained on the resin even after the reaction, causing deactivation of Amberlyst 15DRY. When recycling Amberlyst 15DRY, renegeration by ion exchange with H2SO4 is necessary. 9 423 24 59 50 a Ratio of substrate and catalyst based on weight b Glucose c Oligosaccharides d The reaction was conducted in [BMIM]Cl e Microwave (350 W) was used in addition to heat f Total time including heating and cooling. 2 Cellulose 17 Fig. 15 Proposed structure of sulfonated carbon  catalyst from products .
In 2006, Fukuoka et al. reported the ﬁrst hydrolytic hydrogenation of cellulose using only solid Pt/γ-Al2O3 catalyst, which produced sorbitol and mannitol, an isomer of sorbitol, in 25 and 6 % yields, respectively (entry 30) . 8 ), which cannot hydrolyze free cellulose dispersed in water . Although it was proposed that the hydrolysis was accelerated by proton produced via heterolysis of H2 over Pt nanoparticles [165, 167, 168], this mechanism would be excluded since such species were not observed in pyridine-adsorbed IR spectroscopy .
A Study on Catalytic Conversion of Non-Food Biomass into Chemicals: Fusion of Chemical Sciences and Engineering by Mizuho Yabushita