Download PDF by Michael Frank Hordeski: Alternative Fuels: The Future of Hydrogen

By Michael Frank Hordeski

ISBN-10: 0881735191

ISBN-13: 9780881735192

Spiraling oil costs, hovering global call for, long term oil offer concerns, and extending issues over the weather effect of carbon emissions all are elements contributing to swiftly becoming help and critical efforts towards the advance of a hydrogen-based economic climate. This booklet will deal with the various elements affecting present and rising power use offerings, together with the provision and desirability of varied fuels - and particularly, hydrogen. subject matters contain strength coverage, gas provide tendencies, facts and projections, oil reserves, replacement eventualities, strength usage, sustainable power, expense research, gas escalation, power and improvement, regulatory matters, boundaries to implementation, conversion structures, garage structures, thermodynamic potency, gasoline chain potency, life-cycle potency, know-how matters, extracting, refining, air emission matters, safeguard, traditional gasoline, hydrogen fuel, methanol, ethanol, steam reforming, and gas cells.6 x nine, 244 pp, Illus., Hardcover

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These physical properties include the density, viscosity, optical activity, refractive index, color, fluorescence, odor, pour- and cold-points, flash- and burning-points, coefficient of expansion, surface and interfacial tension, capillarity and absorption. An important property is the density. The density of a substance is the weight per given volume, for example, the number of pounds per cubic foot. Specific gravity is a way of expressing the same thing without specifying a unit of measure. It is the ratio of the weight of a given volume of a substance and the weight of an equal volume of pure water at a particular temperature and pressure.

6%. It also takes very little energy to ignite a hydrogen flame, about 20 microjoules, compared to gasoline which requires 240 micro-joules. However, these hazardous characteristics are reduced by the fact that as the lightest of all elements, hydrogen has a very small specific gravity. Diffusion Rate Since the diffusion rate of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its specific gravity, the period of time in which hydrogen and oxygen are in a combustible mixture is much shorter than other hydrocarbon fuels.

It differs from combustion in that it takes place in a closed vessel in the absence of air, thus preserving the calorific value of the products. This is done in large vertical or horizontal ovens where the gas, coke and by-products are produced at high, mean or low pressure, sometimes continuously and sometimes discontinuously. Modern by-product or chemical recovery ovens save the volatile components and produce coke. Large plants may use hundreds of horizontal ovens, in batteries of 50 to 60. A typical oven is 45 feet long by 13 feet high by 7 feet wide.

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Alternative Fuels: The Future of Hydrogen by Michael Frank Hordeski

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