By Stuart S. Nagel
1 HARDCOVER booklet
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40 years in the past, managerialism ruled company governance. In either idea and perform, a workforce of senior managers ran the company with very little interference from different stakeholders. Shareholders have been primarily powerless and customarily quiescent. forums of administrators have been little greater than rubber stamps.
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There is a regulatory imperative to use adequate, thorough models of multiple impacts for energy policy decisions. Narrow definitions of least cost, based on economic factors and dollar values alone, are not enough. Least cost definitions must be expanded to include impacts on employment, the environment and broader measures of social and political costs as well. Though these decision-aiding techniques can- Thomas Stanton 31 not furnish a perfectly detailed vision of the decision landscape, they are already capable of providing a decent map.
It is as if the modelers set themselves up for criticism because they make all their assumptions and methods highly visible. In this case, almost no oversight at all has been afforded: regulators have essentially allowed public and private utility companies to dictate public policy about energy supply systems for nearly a century, without a clear articulation of decision effects. These decision science techniques represent a first attempt comprehensively to analyze policy options for electric power supply, and it is not sensible to require perfection of them, since they offer so many improvements compared to the status quo.
Not since 1976 has there been a national survey on the trends and effectiveness of juvenile correctional programs (Vintner, 1976). The survey of 42 correctional programs focused on policy and program alternatives and "the extent to which program conditions and practices conform or depart from" the standards set forth by the National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals. The comparative survey was focused on the characteristics of the youths in the program surveyed; the types of offenses they committed; characteristics of program staff; and techniques used to control, treat and educate the juveniles.
Applications of Decision-Aiding Software by Stuart S. Nagel