By Shaobo Zhang MD, Darrell D. Davidson MD, PhD, David Y. Zhang MD, PhD, MPH (auth.), Liang Cheng MD, David Y. Zhang MD, PhD, MPH (eds.)
Molecular Genetic Pathology provides updated fabric containing primary details correct to the medical perform of molecular genetic pathology. half I examines the scientific components of molecular biology, genomics, pharmacogenomics and proteomics, whereas half II covers the molecular parts of scientific genetics, microbiology, hematology, transfusion medication, oncology and forensic pathology. the quantity presents a special reference for the practising pathologist and scientific geneticist in addition to a overview booklet for citizens and fellows in education in pathology, scientific genetics and molecular genetic pathology.
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Extra resources for Molecular Genetic Pathology
Synthesis of the mRNA product continues in the 5' ~3' direction until it reaches the stop codon. Types of RNA • mRNA is transcribed from a DNA template to carry sequence information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm • Transcription is the process of copying sequence information from DNA to RNA. Translation is the process of converting mRNA sequence information into a protein chain • It facilitates the initiation of translation • 3' UTR (3' untranslated region) is a particular section of mRNA located between the stop codon and the poly-A tail at the 3' end • It contains a polyadenylation signal sequence, usually AAUAAA, or a slight variant • It is a binding site for proteins that may affect the mRNA stability or local concentration in the cell • It contains binding sites for microRNAs (miRNAs) • tRNA is an amino acid-specific adaptor molecule containing an anticodon at the 3' end of an RNA molecule containing three hairpin loops, one of which binds a particular amino acid - tRNA constitutes about 10% of the total cellular RNA - tRNA transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis during translation (Figure 20) - Anticodon refers to the unit in a tRNA molecule made up of the three nucleotide sequence that is complementary to the three bases of the codon 23 1-24 Molecular Genetic Pathology 5' AUG -----TrAGG -CUC-~~~ - A U G - U G G 7 r 3' UAC N terminus Met ~~ A r g - Leu +c}eUo Trp Fig.
M H2N(:):N\ N N o f ~H r> r> r> S' :~2~CH20 I (=0N I Purine base Ribose 5' - 5' Triphosphate linkage 3 ·0 CH 2 Pyrimidine base N o Ribose /NX:: ~. \ ) CH2 N N t7 I I I Purine base Ribose OH I Fig. 22. Capping adds a guanosine nucleotide to the 5' end of mRNA via a 5'-5' triphosphate linkage followed by guanosine methylation. The process of 5' capping is critical to create mature mRNA, which is then able to undergo translation. Capping stabilizes the mRNA in the process of protein synthesis so that truncated proteins are not produced by ribonuclease digestion of mRNA during protein synthesis.
21. The figure illustrates an mRNA (in red) and a ribozyme (in black) with secondary structures of substrate-binding arms, catalytic core, and cleavage site. A ribozyme is an RNA molecule that catalyzes a chemical reaction. Ribozymes function by binding to the target RNA and cleaving the phosphodiester backbone at a specific cutting site. Five classes of ribozymes have been described based on their unique characteristics in the sequences as well as by their threedimensional structures. The binding arms of a ribozyme include sequences complementary to the target RNA.
Molecular Genetic Pathology by Shaobo Zhang MD, Darrell D. Davidson MD, PhD, David Y. Zhang MD, PhD, MPH (auth.), Liang Cheng MD, David Y. Zhang MD, PhD, MPH (eds.)