Tess R.W. (ed.)'s Solvents Theory and Practice PDF

By Tess R.W. (ed.)

ISBN-10: 1000003000

ISBN-13: 9781000003000

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Example text

Consider the case of a quadrupole where the RF ramp of mass-selective instability mode is occurring, and ions are being sequentially ejected according to their m/z. Suppose that a population of ions of the same m/z are experiencing resonant excitation; they are perhaps 10 cycles from be ejected, enough time for a collision to occur with a background neutral gas atom or molecule. Naturally, the ions will eject over a distribution of times owing to their differences in position, trajectory, and velocity.

Because the ions have a velocity component transverse to the flight tube, the detector may need to be shifted so that the center of the TOF source and the detector are not co-axial. It should also be noted here that the use of RF multipoles in oaTOFs permits the storage of the ion beam (via trapping) during the period in the TOF cycle when ions are not pulsed into the flight tube; hence, oaTOF designs are one way in which TOFs achieve a high duty cycle (between 5% and 100%) [59]. In addition to instrumental advances at the TOF source, TOF performance was also improved by correcting dispersions at one or multiple points within the ion flight path using a reflectron (or ion mirror).

Ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometers are built around their magnet, with the geometry of the analytical cell chosen depending on the type of magnet used; permanent magnets and some electromagnets operate with cubic geometry so that the magnet poles might face each other to produce a homogenous field, while the highest field strengths are achieved with solenoidal superconducting magnets that are typically paired with coaxially oriented open-ended cylindrical cells [69,73]. Ion cyclotron instruments incorporate a balance of attractive and repulsive forces that causes ion motion to describe a circular path on a plane orthogonal to the magnetic field.

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Solvents Theory and Practice by Tess R.W. (ed.)

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