By Mark A. Burkholder
Spaniards within the Colonial Empire strains the privileges, prejudices, and conflicts among American-born and European-born Spaniards, in the Spanish colonies within the Americas from the 16th to early 19th centuries.
• Covers 3 centuries of Spanish colonial strength, starting within the 16th century
• Explores social pressure among creole and peninsular factions, connecting this friction with later colonial bids for independence
• Draws on fresh learn through Spanish and Spanish-American historians in addition to Anglophone scholars
• Includes a few assurance of Brazil and British colonies
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Extra resources for Spaniards in the Colonial Empire: Creoles vs. Peninsulars
About half of the 168 “Men of Cajamarca” who captured the Inca Atahuallpa and shared his ransom had spent five years or more in the Indies. Approximately half of the identified conquistadors of New Granada boasted five to nine years of prior New World experience. The difference in an expedition led by an “old hand” like Cortés or Francisco Pizarro or by a “greenhorn” like Pedrarias could determine success or death. Claims of nobility by conquistadors and first settlers in New Spain, Peru, and elsewhere increased over time.
4 In 1519, Europeans in the Indies totaled fewer than 5000 spread among a small number of municipalities and the Cortés expedition. Length of time in the Indies influenced a conquistador’s opportunities and rewards. Fernando Cortés probably arrived in 1506 and his chief lieutenant, Pedro de Alvarado did so in 1510. About half of the 168 “Men of Cajamarca” who captured the Inca Atahuallpa and shared his ransom had spent five years or more in the Indies. Approximately half of the identified conquistadors of New Granada boasted five to nine years of prior New World experience.
The instructions for Spain and Its Early Empire in Americaâ•…â•… 11 viceroy of New Spain Luis de Velasco in 1550 identified these men as settling in native villages where they abused the indigenous people, raped wives and daughters, and created other difficulties. Velasco was to remove them from the villages and order them to find gainful employment. He was also to watch the peninsular secular clerics and friars, a majority of whose behavior allegedly set bad examples. Nearly 70% of over 55â•›000 identified immigrants between 1493 and 1600 came from Andalusia, Extremadura, and New Castile.
Spaniards in the Colonial Empire: Creoles vs. Peninsulars by Mark A. Burkholder